8.2.1 Statistical and Other Quantitative Methods
8.2.2 Observation
8.2.3 Surveys
8.2.4 Analogy
8.2.5 Judgement



  1. ^ Used largely for new products, market tests such as experimental test markets
  2. ^ Use of test markets has declined over the past two decades for two reasons


Market tests of various kinds are the last of our most commonly used methods. We address market testing in more detail inModule 11, but a few observations are pertinent here.

[1] Used largely for new products, market tests such as experimental test markets may be done under controlled experimental conditions in research laboratories, or in live test markets with real advertising and promotion and distribution in stores.
[2] Use of test markets has declined over the past two decades for two reasons.
First, they are expensive to conduct because significant quantities of the new product must be produced and marketing activities of various kinds must be paid for.

More importantly, in today’s data-intensive environment, especially for consumer products sold through supermarkets and mass merchants, competitors can buy the data collected through scanners at the checkout and learn the results of the test market without bearing the expense.

More diabolically, competitors can engage in marketing tactics to mislead the company conducting the test, by increasing sampling programs, offering deep discounts or buy-one-get-one-free promotions, or otherwise distorting normal purchasing patterns in the category.

Experimental test markets, on the other hand, are still commonly used.

The coming of the Internet has made possible a new kind of market test: an offer directly to consumers on the Web. Offers to chat rooms, interest groups, or email lists of current customers are approaches that have been tried. Use of such techniques has increased, due to companies’ ability to carry out such tests quickly and at low cost.

  1. client contact systems
  2. collector bias
  3. competitive advantage
  4. competitive intelligence
  5. computerised reorder system
  6. consumer behaviour
  7. data sources
  8. evidence based forecast
  9. experienced user
  10. internal records
  11. just in time
  12. logistical alliance
  13. market potential
  14. market segmentation
  15. market segments
  16. marketing program
  17. marketing research
  18. mass market
  19. mass market strategy
  20. michelin; us west;
  21. micro segmentation
  22. middleman
  23. modified rebuy
  24. multi-functional sales teams
  25. multilevel selling
  26. multiple buying
  27. multiple level relationships
  28. mutual trust
  29. narrow market segment
  30. narrow niche
  31. nationalisation of producers
  32. nerve center
  33. new task buy
  34. nine west group
  35. observation;direct observation' tanzania mobile;
  36. on-time delivery
  37. opportunity; research
  38. order handling
  39. organisation market
  40. organization marketing behaviour
  41. organizational behaviour
  42. organizational customers
  43. organizational demand
  44. organizational market
  45. organizational purchasing behaviour
  46. organizational purchasing process
  47. paperless exchange
  48. parity pricing
  49. personal selling
  50. personal use
  51. political risk
  52. potential market; penetrated market
  53. pre-delivery inspection
  54. pre-sale service
  55. prestige buyer
  56. pretender
  57. primary data
  58. procurement costs
  59. purchasing criteria
  60. qualitative data
  61. qualitative research
  62. quality assurance
  63. quality standards
  64. quantitative data
  65. quantitative research
  66. research objectives
  67. retention programme
  68. routine purchase
  69. sales forecast
  70. semantic differentiation scale
  71. sequence of information
  72. shared costs
  73. short term contracts
  74. social construction
  75. status oriented consumers
  76. stock availability
  77. straight rebuy
  78. supplier bargaining power
  79. supplier performance
  80. supplier reputation
  81. survey
  82. tabulation errors
  83. tanzania mobile
  84. target customers
  85. target market
  86. target marketing
  87. technical experts;
  88. test markets
  89. transaction cost
  90. trend forecasting
  91. trusting patron
  92. underlying consumer demand
  93. unethical demands
  94. unstated but implicit assumptions
  95. users
  96. value analysis
  97. value shopper
  98. vertical integration
  99. visceral thing that cannot be trained
  100. wild guess